Each turn represents a decade and includes three battles.  Throw a D10 for each battle.

1-3       The Hundred Years’ War

4-5       German turmoil

6-8       The Horde rides

9-10     The Balkan problem


Then throw a D6.


Hundred Years’ War

1          English invasion of Scotland

2          Scots invasion of England or Ireland

3          Throw again:

            1-4       War in Ireland           

            5-6       Welsh revolt

4-6       French war – throw again:
            1 – Low Countries revolt against France or Burgundy

            2 – Civil war in France (normally French v Burgundians)

            3-6 – English invasion of France

Before 1360 1 or 2 means Low Countries revolt against France (not Burgundy)



If the Scots win while invading England or Ireland, 2 is deducted from each subsequent HYW score.  If the English win two successive battles while invading Scotland, Scotland is conquered and 1 is added to each subsequent HYW score.  A “Scots invasion” result after that means a Scots revolt. If the English win three successive battles while invading France, the King of England is recognised as King of France and England has won the Hundred Years’ War.  Any other result is a French victory.  Subsequent “invasion of France” results represent French revolts.


If the Welsh defeat the English, all subsequent “invasion of France” results become “invasion of Wales”, until the Welsh are defeated.  Glendower’s revolt, of course.



German turmoil

1-2              Imperial invasion of Italy

3-4       External war – throw again:

            1-2      War with Denmark

            3-4      War with Hungary

            5-6      Teutonic Knights attack Poland or Lithuania

5-6              Civil war in Germany



If the Germans defeat the Italians in two successive battles, Italy is conquered.  Deduct 1 from each subsequent GT throw.  A further “invasion of Italy” result means an Italian revolt, or inter-Italian war between city-states.  Note that wars in Italy are more likely after an Imperial conquest.

If rebels win a civil war, add 2 to each subsequent GT throw until the Imperialists win a civil war.


The Horde rides

1-2              Russian revolt against the Golden Horde

3          The Golden Horde attacks Lithuania

4          The Golden Horde attacks Hungary

5-6       Poland attacks Lithuania



Two successive Russian victories against the Golden Horde liberate Russia.  Subsequent Russian attacks could be against the Golden Horde, Lithuania or the Teutonic Knights, or Russian civil wars (equal chances).


The Golden Horde cannot permanently conquer Hungary or Lithuania – these are pre-emptive strikes or raids.


If Poland defeats Lithuania, the two form a dynastic alliance.  Subsequent Poland results mean an attack by Poland-Lithuania against the Teutonic Knights, Russia, Hungary or the Golden Horde (equal chances – attack each in succession).  Defeating all four makes Poland-Lithuania the pre-eminent power in Eastern Europe.


Balkan Turmoil

1          Renascent Byzantium attacks one of its neighbours (Bulgaria, Serbia, Achaea or the Turks)

2          Bulgaria attacks a neighbour (Serbia, Wallachia, Byzantium or Hungary)

3-4       Serbia attacks: throw again for target

1-2              Bulgaria

3-6      Byzantium

5-6       The Ottomans attack: throw again for target

1-2      Bulgaria

                   3-5       Serbia

                   6          Byzantium


If Byzantium or Bulgaria is defeated (by anyone), add one to each subsequent Balkan throw.  A Byzantine victory cancels out one such defeat.  Add one to the throw for each Ottoman victory.


If the Serbs defeat either the Bulgarians or the Byzantines twice in succession, the Serbian Empire is proclaimed and the defeated state ceases to exist.  If Byzantium is conquered by the Serbs, any subsequent attacks on Byzantium are against the Serbs instead.


Bulgaria is conquered if defeated once by the Ottomans.  The Serbs are conquered by the Ottomans if defeated once, or twice if the Serbs have defeated Bulgaria and/or Byzantium.  Bulgaria falls automatically if Serbia is conquered by the Ottomans.  The second Ottoman attack on Byzantium is the siege of Constantinople.


After the Ottomans have conquered Serbia, an Ottoman attack on Bulgaria or Serbia is replaced by war with Hungary.